The supreme council of culture, department of author’s rights,
Patent number 1000000410 in Cairo 10/3/2007 at 12:29:10 afternoon
Author: Engineer and Tourist Guide MR. LABIB HANY HALIM YOUSEF
Receipt no 0367021
HOW PYRAMIDS WERE BUILT See also The Broken Vase Theory
Building started at the center by building a core or mastaba (a square building of one layer of stones) then completed the pyramid shape making a small pyramid in the center, then surrounded it from the four sides by a layer (5-10 m thick) made a new bigger pyramid, work continued increasing the base size and the height until the decision was made to stop or the king died . Working this way made always a pyramid ready to receive the king if he died any time (this agrees with ancient Egyptians believes and agrees also with their genius simplicity and we can see the evidence in the pyramids they left)
Ancient Egyptians in the old kingdom well knew wheels and may have used it in building pyramids and moving heavy stones.
Ancient Egyptians in the old kingdom well knew pulleys and used it in raising their boats’ sails and may have used it in lifting stones to higher levels.
How pyramids were built?
It is generally accepted, and commonly thought and written on books, references and on the internet; that building the pyramids in Egypt started by deciding the pyramid dimensions , corner stones were put first ,then the first course was built, followed by the second ,third ….. Etc, to the end, and the cap stone comes on th
Based on this imagination many theories were introduced suggesting building ramps either from one direction, four directions or helical ramps that rose around the pyramid , in spite of the fact that building and removing these ramps would have taken longer time and more effort than building the pyramid itself.
The important question here that no body before asked is
Did the king or project manager know exactly the required dimensions of the pyramid he is building?
This is actually contradicting to facts, logic and ancient Egyptian religion.
Contradicting to logic because for sure the kings would be ambitious if you ask them they would order the biggest pyramid, but on the other side who guarantee to be there to finish it. This is why I have big doubt they ever knew or ordered a specific dimensions of their pyramids.
IN CONTRADICTION WITH Ancient Egyptian religion .Because there must be always a ready tomb (pyramid) to receive the king’s mummy at any time. So it was not accepted to find only the first few courses of a big pyramid that would take ages to finish as a pyramid (a work that can not be guaranteed to be done after the king’s death.
Contradicting to fact because they left no truncated pyramids, the pyramids left by the Ancient Egyptians are all finished pyramids, having the pyramid shape either in a good condition or crumbling.
I wondered a lot, why nobody tried to think in a simple way that suites better with Ancient Egyptian simple life, and believe.
Why wouldn’t they start building from the center? Building a small pyramid
Then increase its base size by building another layer all around the core, , increase its height to have a bigger pyramid shape , gradually making it bigger and bigger until either the king orders stopping the size increase and finishing it , or he died suddenly. A pyramid is always ready for the king to be buried in.
Based on this simple thought I started looking for evidence to support this completely new theory:
Surprisingly I found the following evidence
1)Zoser stepped pyramid in Sakkara ( the oldest pyramid)was built this way, any one can notice that it started as one Mastaba using small size stone, then the base dimensions was increased (using bigger stone size)and two more steps were added, finally you can notice the third increase of base dimensions and the added three more steps.(
2) There is a pyramid in ZAWIET EL ERIAN south of Giza called the MULTI LAYER PYRAMID it dates back to the third dynasty, this was studied by a Harvard university Cooperating with Boston Fine Art Museum in 1910, they published there work in the Museum Annuals, was discussed later in “Riezner” book about the development of Egyptian tomb in 1938.
It is clearly mentioned that it has a square core (11 m the side) added to it 14 side layers 3.6 m wide. (Was built from the center out)
3)El KAWLA PYRAMID in front of El KAP City near Aswan .(was built from the center out) a Square Core and 3 side layers the first one is 12 courses of height 4.3 m the second 10 courses , the third one collapsed.
4) MAYDOOM PYRAMID about 50 km south of Giza made of a square core and 8 side layers around it. . (Was built from the center out)
5) SAHURA PYRAMID in ABU SIR (5th Dynasty) a core and 6 side layers getting smaller towards the outside. (Was built from the center out).
6)All the pyramids we know about have different dimensions and different quality of building and this may reflect many things like the kings rule time, the centralized management power, the natural disasters, and the population , so in my opinion , there was no way they decided beforehand what dimensions their pyramid would be.
7)It is noticed that the location of of pyramid’s entrances differ from a pyramid to another, and in some cases it is still outside the building (like khefren’s pyramid) which means that they never planned its location but it was to be where it was when the work stopped.
8) Practically and from the constructional engineering point of view it is much easier to leave spaces for rooms and corridors while building from inside out, and it is more flexible allowing changes of design and addition of extra rooms.
The second surprise for the whole world is to announce that
Ancient Egyptians Knew and Used WHEELS, and pulleys as early as the old kingdom (2800 BC)
WHEELS where found depicted on one of the walls of a noble man of the
5 Th dynasty called “kha-em-heseit” in Sakkara it is clearly showing a huge ladder standing up right on 4 wheels with two persons holding long bars
(Handspike) in such a way to prevent it moving or sliding, the ladder is so big that it could carry five men to work on scaling the wall at the same time.
2) PULLEYS the concept of pulleys was well known to them in the old kingdom time as they showed pulleys made of ropes (a rope passes through a ring made of rope) used for raising boat sails. Can be observed in Merirouka tomb in Sakkara and where else a boat with sail was depicted.
Another good evidence is what can be seen inside the king’s burial chamber in the north pyramid of Senefrue in Dahshur (the red pyramid) , there you can see a tree trunk fixed horizontally across the room with very clear marks of ropes that used it like a pulley.
1) Work started by choosing the building site, and digging the underground burial chamber and the corridors leading to it up to the ground level.
2) The core mastaba was built first in a square shape the side length varies from 10 to 20 meters.
3) Stones were lifted up to the second course using movable wooden ramps made of cedar wood; they could use wheels and pulleys as well.
4) They finish building a small pyramid in the center (without the cap stone).
5) A layer was added around this small pyramid of thickness ranging from 4 to 10 meters and they work on finishing the bigger pyramid.
6) They continue in the same way until they meet the corridor leading to the burial chamber where they start leaving space for the corridor extension.
7) At any moment they could leave a space for a new room and leave space for the corridors leading to it in case of sudden change of plans.
8)work continue until they either receive orders to stop enlarging the pyramid or the king died, then they move on to casing the pyramid with white lime stone reaching the amazing precision in the joints between the blocks to prevent water leakage inside the pyramid ( see the broken Vase theory).
8) They placed the CAP STONE on the top
9)they cut the casing stones to the required angle , using wooden scaffolds tied with ropes they could reach any heights the needed, also they used fine ropes to adjust and level their cutting and smoothening then polishing .
I hope this Theory would enlighten people’s minds to start looking at pyramid building from a new prospective.
BUILDING FROM THE CENTER OUT
a New Theory, a logical way of pyramid building and Construction,This must be how Ancient Egyptians Built, from the center out with no built ramp, no Mastabas, but Multi layer pyramids.